Tigris and euphrates river valley

Tigris and Euphrates Setting the Scene

tigris and euphrates river valley

Tigris–Euphrates river system

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Tigris-Euphrates river system , great river system of southwestern Asia. It comprises the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, which follow roughly parallel courses through the heart of the Middle East. The two rivers have their sources within 50 miles 80 km of each other in eastern Turkey and travel southeast through northern Syria and Iraq to the head of the Persian Gulf. The rivers usually are discussed in three parts: their upper, middle, and lower courses. The upper courses are restricted to the valleys and gorges of eastern Anatolia , through which the rivers descend from their sources, lying 6, to 10, feet 1, to 3, metres above sea level.

Setting the Scene. Over the years, archaeological discoveries have uncovered multiple irrigation systems that diverted portions of the rivers for farming, and civil uses. Over time, more societies were formed from the growing populations, largely because of the growing advancement in agriculture. Over the course of numerous wars, empires, and religions, the southwest Asia continent was divided into different countries, with different rulers and governments. It may be within this statement that reveals the possible reasons for the water crisis.

The Fertile Crescent is the boomerang-shaped region of the Middle East that was home to some of the earliest human civilizations. The Fertile Crescent includes ancient Mesopotamia. On a map, the Fertile Crescent looks like a crescent or quarter-moon. The Tigris and Euphrates rivers flow through the heart of the Fertile Crescent. The region historically contained unusually fertile soil and productive freshwater and brackish wetlands. These produced an abundance of wild edible plant species.

The Tigris and Euphrates , with their tributaries , form a major river system in Western Asia. From their sources and upper courses in the mountains of eastern Anatolia , the rivers descend through valleys and gorges to the uplands of Syria and northern Iraq and then to the alluvial plain of central Iraq. The rivers flow in a south-easterly direction through the central plain and combine at Al-Qurnah to form the Shatt al-Arab and discharge into the Persian Gulf. The region has historical importance as part of the Fertile Crescent region , in which civilization is believed to have first emerged. The ecoregion is characterized by two large rivers, the Tigris and Euphrates. The rivers have several small tributaries which feed into the system from shallow freshwater lakes, swamps , and marshes , all surrounded by desert.

The 'two rivers' of the name referred to the Tigris and the Euphrates rivers and the land was known as 'Al-Jazirah' the island by the Arabs referencing what Egyptologist J. Breasted would later call the Fertile Crescent , where Mesopotamian civilization began. Unlike the more unified civilizations of Egypt or Greece , Mesopotamia was a collection of varied cultures whose only real bonds were their script , their gods, and their attitude toward women. The social customs, laws, and even language of Akkad , for example, cannot be assumed to correspond to those of Babylon ; it does seem, however, that the rights of women, the importance of literacy, and the pantheon of the gods were indeed shared throughout the region though the gods had different names in various regions and periods. As a result of this, Mesopotamia should be more properly understood as a region that produced multiple empires and civilizations rather than any single civilization.

Mesopotamia an area geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. Mesopotamia means the land between two rivers. Source: World History: Ancient Civilizations. Impact of Geography. Social Structure.


Yousry's Global History Class. - The Tigris River is one of two main rivers of ancient Mesopotamia , what is today modern Iraq. The name Mesopotamia means "the land between two rivers," although perhaps it ought to mean "the land between two rivers and a delta.



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